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The Coming Wave of LED Street Lights

The development of LEDs is truly a silent technological revolution. While we have come to rely on them for so many devices, from mobile phones to DVD players, few of us dwell on the importance of these tiny light emitting diodes. However, the current interest in investing in LED street lights could change all that by bringing LEDs out into the open to light up our cities.
Although scientists developed primitive LEDs in the late sixties, it has taken some time to improve the efficiency enough to expand the practical uses of the technology. One major improvement, which is still a concern for some, is the intensity of the light. Some city administrators worry that LEDs are not bright enough to use on the streets. However, LEDs are constantly evolving and getting better, which has led many cities across the world to use them for street lighting.
A major reason for this is efficiency. City governments facing tight budgets have opted for LED street lights in an effort to save money. Compared to incandescent lights, LEDs are 50% more efficient. This saves money, despite the higher initial cost. They also last longer, which translates into even greater savings in the long term.
A more altruistic reason that accompanies the economic motive is to reduce carbon emissions. As global warming has become a concern, more local governments are waking up to the fact that their cities can help stave off carbon usage. Using this new form of lighting can mean a much smaller carbon footprint, as LEDs use fifty percent less carbon compared to other, more traditional forms of lighting.
LEDs also contain no mercury, a toxic material that has to be dealt with when lights are disposed of. While the amounts in each bulb are not large, given the millions of light fixtures across the world, making this change can have a positive impact on pollution levels.
Several countries already use LEDs for a variety of purposes, from street lights and traffic lights to signs in public spaces. The US has also seen a surge of interest in the technology as the federal government has encouraged investment in green technology as part of the stimulus package. This may help push LEDs into more common use in the United States.
Government administrators and citizens alike hope that LED street lights can bring about a brighter, cheaper and more eco-friendly future. If nothing else, these new lights will highlight the importance of this tiny technology that we so often overlook.…

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General Article

Microsoft Access Database: Discover How Easily to Apply Conditional Formatting in Microsoft Access

Microsoft Access Database: Discover How Easily to Apply Conditional Formatting in Microsoft Access

In the days before Microsoft Access 2000, trying to create dynamic format changes to a form or a report based on a changing value or an expression required either a macro or some VBA code which meant learning how to program your Access database application.

When version 2000 was released and up to and including version 2007, Conditional Formatting became a life saver as it provided a quick way to select up to three conditions which logically tested and changed the look of your formats without any programming skills at all.

In Access 2010, it has been improved and extends beyond the three conditions along with some other quick pre-defined options releasing the richness of Microsoft Access forms and reports that it brings to your application.

What’s Conditional Formatting?

Well, if you know Microsoft Excel, you probably know what this is but just in case you were out that day, here’s a preview.

Conditional Formatting is a format feature that is applied to your forms and reports to a field (control) that listens (looks) for the value to change which then applies a format of your choice based on the logical test it performs. The format options could be the font colour, bold, italic, background colours and other basic enhancements which is triggered from the TRUE value returned on the data value found.

For example, for a sales report showing monthly turnover for each product where the product monthly total falls below a target value; a format is set so that the value turns the number to red and bold which clearly stands out from the rest which did meet the target value (as a regular format).

The conditional test must be a logical statement that if TRUE will apply the format set or if found to be to FALSE is ignored. You can nest multiple conditions (up to 3 for versions pre 2010) which logically flows in the order set to trigger a conditional format (if it can). Therefore, you could have three different formats for the same field with different data value ranges.

How to set Conditional Formatting

There is little difference between a form and report when using this tool but here I’m going to focus on the report object in Microsoft Access.

In design view of a report, click on the field (control) which will contain the conditional format.

Right mouse click on the control and choose ‘Conditional Formatting’ from the pop-up menu or locate the same command from the toolbar or ribbon bar (depending on the version being used).

Decide if the rule is to be based on a value, an expression or if a form, Field has focus.

Set the logical operator or write the logical expression which can be a calculation (a formula).

Choose your format options which appear as icons and are self-explanatory using the preview to assist.

Click OK.

Repeat this if more than one condition is required to the same control or across other controls.

In Access 2010, you have an additional option to choose Compare to other records and you can also set data bars which are gradient filled bars using aggregate calculations and can specify data types and values which are also expressions. Use the Microsoft Access help for more information by typing the following keyword phrase “conditional formatting – compare to other records”.…

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General Article

We’ve Only Just Begun to See

We’ve Only Just Begun to See

Microsoft and Apple have been battling with each other ever since the invention of the computer. They both want their peace of the pie and with Microsoft nearing the end of their latest production; it may look like Microsoft might win another battle. First there was the iPod, which came across the world with a bullet. The mp3 player that will make life easier to anyone with a music fetish, being able to listen to hundreds of songs for less then what the CD’s would cost. Then there was the Zune, the iPod like MP3 player for Microsoft. Now it’s tablets. Tablets have been around since before Moses, but nothing like this. In this article you’ll learn about what Microsoft has to offer and why Apple is trailing behind.

Microsoft has been working on their latest creation, while struggling to keep up with Apple in every aspect, almost, of technology. But now Microsoft might have a win. It only takes on chance to win the war, regardless of numerous victories from the other opponent. Microsoft has created the Microsoft Courier, a new tablet that will do virtually everything. The Apple Tablet is still in the works. This tablet will allow you to surf the web, listen to music, watch movies, read books, and even keep a hand written journal. Don’t worry about if you have enough paper to get through the end of your journal, never buy new lead for that pencil. Just plug in your courier and enjoy the newly found freedom.

Like a regular book you’ll be able to open it and close it like a book. You’ll be able to, almost, literally grab images and fling them away. You can flick a picture to get it to move. You can draw and write with the stylus. And unlike any product like it, you can even take pictures. Making this new invention Microsoft’s best idea yet, being able to not be a tablet but a booklet.…

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Computer News

Why Choose An ITIL Certification Course?

In the contemporary world, ITIL certification has become an essential skill required for IT based careers for many young professionals. This certification course has many requirements in relation to computers and network systems.
ITIL has become the most widely adopted approach in IT service management, as it provides a practical framework and approach in improving your business services. You must know how important IT has become in the proper functioning of a business. An organization without an efficient IT system has no backbone and cannot survive for long.
Nowadays, you will find many young professionals choosing ITIL certification to improve their skills and enhance their scope of knowledge. Acquiring ITIL certification has become very important for individuals connected to the IT world for three main reasons.
Firstly, this certification allows you to get familiar with the common language used in the world of IT. Next, it will teach you how to manage IT services and ways to make use of logical connections. Lastly, ITIL training can provide enormous cost savings in the long run as it fosters the best use of individual skills, resources, and technology.
ITIL qualifications and training brings massive benefits to both: individuals and organizations. This program offers a number of courses that are designed to improve your business relationships with customers, suppliers and other users. The course also teaches you ways of implementing essential processes in your work environment.
There are many renowned companies like Microsoft, Shell Oil and NASA who are updating their organizational system with ITIL training. For this reason, ITIL program has gained immense popularity and many new emerging companies are making best use of this method. It is therefore important that businesses and individuals choose ITIL certification for smooth running of their businesses.
You will find many providers who can help you get an ITIL certification. There are some providers who offer their training sessions online. However, you might not find online training sessions very effective, as the last courses need physically interaction which is not possible online. On the other hand, some providers offer ITIL training in a classroom which is no doubt the best option especially for those who respond better when they actually have a teacher in the room.
If you really want to secure your future and land on your dream job then you should definitely go for ITIL certification.…

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General Article

Exam 77-601 – Guidelines on How to Pass Microsoft Essential Practice Test

Exam 77-601 – Guidelines on How to Pass Microsoft Essential Practice Test

Exam 77-601 can be said as the reference to the Microsoft office 2007. This certification will suit best to the entry- level professionals who wish to start a career in the information technology field. This certification will suit best to the candidates who are interested in achieving Microsoft certifications using Microsoft 2007 office. For certifying with MCAS certification (Microsoft certified Application specialist), candidates should take this examination along with the certifications such as 77-603, 77-604 as well as 77-605 examinations.

Requirements for exam 77-601:

This examination will suit best to the professionals who are interested in starting a career by using the Microsoft office tool. The job roles include designations that play a major in Microsoft word application. In order to get eligibility for writing this examination, a candidate should have basic computer knowledge and this certification also suit best to the professionals who have work experience in handling business by using Microsoft 2007 office or other Microsoft office applications.

What are the skills that are measured for exam 77-601?

The main responsibility for this examination includes the candidate’s knowledge and skills in tasks such as formatting word documents and other contents. The exam topic involves creation as well as customization of documents. By certifying with this examination, candidates will be able to perform various tasks such as creation of lay-outs in documentation, formatting as well as creating documents, manipulating texts, creation of controlling pages, formatting paragraphs and other document related etc.

Exam objectives:

The following are the 77-601 exam objectives / topic outlines and they are:

1) Creation and customizing documents

2) Formatting all word documents / contents

3) Working with the visual contents

4) Organizing the contents

5) Reviewing and proofreading all the documentation

6) Sharing as well as securing the contents.…

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Latest Technology Updates

The Pros and Cons of Skype

For a person interested in controlling costs or streamlining their communications, Skype has potential. In a nutshell Skype turns your computer into your phone.
All you need is a microphone and speakers or a simple plug-in headset, microphone combo. You might care about Skype because of the potential to cut communication costs and increase your choices in making contact with your business and personal connections. With a free trial offering you may find Skype, to be a cost saving champion compared to the traditional phone choices. However, you could find Skype’s many ways to “make you pay to play” and the privacy flaws to be off putting.
Save on Long Distance Calls: Skype to Skype
The biggest benefit is free calls if you are both talking via Skype. The same benefit applies for instant messaging or texting via Skype and video chats. The cost of international calls really adds up. Calling anyone, anywhere on Skype is free when they are using the Skype interface too.
A friend’s daughter was out of the country for several months going to school. Their regular Saturday morning video chat via Skype provided mother and daughter with the physical reassurance that both were doing well.
Skype Starter Steps
Here’s how.
Step 1 Download program and select Install
You will see options for PC, Mac and others. Go to their site to begin.
Step 2 Complete your Profile
Similar to all social media type tools, Skype wants you to talk all about yourself. Keeping your privacy in mind, you may want to select some graphic to represent you during communications.
The most time consuming step for me was finding a screen name that I liked and had not been taken.
Step 3 Add or import your contacts
Contact list works as you would expect. You can import phone numbers and Skype names, type them in or do some form of copy and paste.
Step 4: Place your first Skype to Skype Call.
To connect, enter or select the fellow Skype users’ phone number and click the big green button with a phone on it.
No Camera Required
Don’t have a web cam? Some people are pleased to learn that webcams and face to face conversations are not a Skype requirement. Voice-to-voice services and messages work well and no camera is required.
Potential Cons Could Cause Concerns
Before you rush to cut the cord, emergency call issues, privacy risks and add on costs should be weighed, too.
No emergency calls with Skype
Should you consider “cutting the phone line” in favor of Skype, be aware there is no 911 or emergency service available with Skype.
Pay-to-Talk Services Can Add Up
Skype could help you save on calls to “out of Skype network” calls. “Out of network” means you are calling via the Skype interface and the person you are calling is not using the Skype interface. In this situation, you will pay for having the conversation.
Skype offers a range of per minute charges depending upon where you are calling and if you are paying Skype a monthly fee. I found it most economical to pre-pay for a block of minutes because this qualified me for a discount. Carefully check all fees and rates before taking action beyond their advertising message “Skype to Skype” is free.
Example of Skype Pay Per-per Minute Plan: The Skype website reports that a call from USA to Mexico starts “as low as 2.3 cents per minute”. However, a call from the USA to a mobile phone in Mexico is posted as 33.6 cents per minute*
Think of Skype’s paid services as an Al la carte menu with each side dish having an additional cost.
Potential Privacy Risks
Some issues have been reported regarding Skype’s privacy settings not keeping the view from your webcam private. The fastest solution might be very low tech. You place a sticky note or a bit of masking take over your computer’s camera.
A more elegant solution might be technology based. If your computer is camera equipped, you can choose to control who sees your smiling face with several programs. One is . This program enables you to control what applications can or cannot use your webcam. If your computer is shared by family members or office mates, I suggest using a password to protect webcam access. It’s best to keep the view into your room within your control at all times. We’ve all seen enough police dramas with the criminal using an unguarded webcam to stalk a potential victim to merit a little extra webcam privacy considerations.
To recap, Skype is a messaging, voice, and video program. The clear benefit is free calls within its network and being able to stay in touch face-to-face, if and when you want to. The potential communication cons are as …

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General Article

Operating, Connecting The Speakers To The Hi-fi System

The cable must be bipolar. The positive and negative pole should be marked in to avoid inverted polarity. The height of the cable depends on the place where they are going to install the ELAC system. Trim the cable, so there is 20-35% excess cable. The area of the cable determines the cross-section of the cable. With a height of 5 m per loudspeaker, a copper-lead cross-section should be at least 2 qmm². With a length of 9 m, the smallest cross-section should be 4 qmm², etc. Under these situations, the ohms resistance remains practically constant and negligible. To reduce the cable’s inductive behaviour.

  • They presume that the electric components of a hi-fi system are entirely mounted and connected. Please switch off all features.
  • Place the two speakers on the floor, next to each other; each baffle placed next to each other.
  • Now put the speaker cables to the output terminals of the amplifier. Twist the cable ends to create a large area of contact. Please ensure that the left amplifier connection is connected to the left speaker (left to left/right to right).
  • It is essential to match the polarity of both types of equipment. The positive side of the amplifier outputs must be linked to the speaker’s inputs.
  • The ELAC system is now ready to work. The volume control of the amplifier should be turned to less than ¼. Before switching on the amplifier, switch on all other units of the hi-fi system.

Connecting the speakers to a stereo system

switch off the system to perform the following test: inverting the polarization of the speaker. Listen to a particular piece of music again. The tonal response should provide low bass. This effect can be heard if the mono/stereo button on the system is switched on. Therefore, please try the mono mode. Do not forget to turn back to stereo mode again after a while. If there is a massive effect of the one described above, there is an error regarding the polarization. This could come from the loudspeaker cables at the amplifier or the loudspeakers. Therefore, check the polarization of your loudspeaker. You can do this utilizing a torch battery. Connect the battery’s positive side to the speaker’s red terminal and connect the negative pole to the black terminal. The woofer diaphragm should move forward now. If you cannot eliminate the polarization error, replace the complimentary bar of one speaker cable with a negative bar. This way, the entire system should be polarized correctly.

Now check the connection between the two channels. While listening to the test program, turn your amplifier’s balance control to the right and left sides. As a result, either the left or the right system is responding. If this is not the issue, there is an error in the speakers’ connection with the amplifier terminals.

Utilizing test records or test CD’s, you can manage the connections at your amplifier. If the results of all tests are okay, the relationship of the speakers is doing correctly.

Define the place in your place where you would like to install your loudspeakers. Please switch off all, disconnect the system and route the cables in a way to avoid tripping.

After connecting the speakers, the hi-fi system is ready to operate.  The last step shall help to optimize the location of the loudspeakers.